Manifestations of Hidden Curricular Messages in the PGDT Program: Covert Tasks in Focus

Haileyesus Wudu


This study describes the experiences of student-teachers in the Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching (PGDT) program. The aim was to explore the hidden curricular messages within the program, covert tasks in focus, by answering two central questions: 1)What do student-teachers’ experiences in the PGDT program tell us about their task compliance in their training 2) Do student-teachers’ task compliance vary significantly with their background characteristics? Exploratory sequential mixed methods study was conducted in three public universities over the course of three academic terms. Data consisted of transcribed interviews and questionnaire survey. In the first phase of the study, data was collected and analyzed relying on the assumptions of phenomenological inquiry from purposively selected 25 student-teachers (male=15 and female=10). In the second stage, survey was conducted on a relatively large sample size consisting 356 student-teachers (male=216 and female=140) selected using systematic random sampling. The qualitative data were transcribed, coded and interpreted thematically; and quantitative data was reduced into descriptive statistics such as t-tests and one way ANOVA. Main findings from this study indicated that, various elements of covert tasks were manifested in the PGDT program and these elements of covert tasks attested superficial task compliance of the trainees. The results also indicated that the differences in mean scores across student-teachers background characteristics, as measured by the Task Compliance Rating Scale, were not found statistically significant. Therefore, this study raises questions and concerns about the vigor of PGDT program in enabling student-teachers exhibit the minimum competency thresholds espoused by the secondary school pre-service teacher education program.


Hidden curriculum, Hidden Curricular Messages, Covert tasks, PGDT program

Full Text:



Alemayehu, B. (2008). Hidden Curriculum: Impact Analysis on Multiculturalism in Higher Learning Institutions. Dissertation: unpublished

Anyon, J. (1980). Social class and the hidden curriculum of work. Journal of Education, 162(1), 67–92.

Apple, M. (2004) Ideology and Curriculum (3rd ed). Published in Great Britain by Routledge Falmer

Barfels & Delucchi (2000) A class above the rest: the hidden curriculum of work in higher education, Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 5:1, 63-76.

Barrett, Solomon, Singer, Portelli & Mujuwamariya (2009) The Hidden Curriculum of a Teacher Induction Program: Ontario Teacher Educators’ Perspectives. Canadian Journal of Education 32, 4 (2009): 677‐702

Barrow, R. (1976). Radical Education: A Critique of Free schooling and Deschooling. London: Martin Robertson.

Bayanfar, F. (2013) The Effects of Hidden Curriculum on Affective Characteristics Outcome of High School. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. Vol, 4 (10): 3192-3197

Brady, L. (1995). Curriculum development. Sydney: Prentice Hall.

Cornbleth, C. (1984). Beyond hidden curriculum? Journal of Curriculum Studies, 16(1), 29-36.

Elliott, J. (1983) Paradigms of Educational Research and Theories of Schooling. Paper presented at the Sociology of Education Conference (Birmingham, England, January 1983).

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) (2009). Higher Education Proclamation: Proclamation No. 650/2009. Federal Negarit Gazeta, pp. 4976-5044.

Gatto, J.T. (2005). Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum Of Compulsory Education: New Society Publishers

Gordon, D. (1982). The concept of the hidden curriculum. Journal of Philosophy of Education, 1 6(2):187-198

Illich, I. (1978). In lieu of education. In I. Illich Toward a History of Needs: Essays (New York:Bantam),68-92.

Jackson,P.W.(1968). Life in classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Kelly A.V. (2004) The Curriculum Theory and Practice. Fifth Edition. India : SAGE Publications

Martin, J. (1976). What should we do with a hidden curriculum when we find one. Curriculum Inquiry, 6 (2), 135-151.

Meighan, R. and Siraj-Blatchford, I. (2001). Sociology of Educating. (3rd ed.). London: Rinehart and Winston LTD.

Ministry of Education (MOE). (2003). A national curriculum guideline for pre-service teacher education programmes. An official policy document. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Education

Ministry of Education (MOE). (2003). A national framework for teacher education system overhaul. Unpublished policy document, Addis Ababa, Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education (MOE) (2009). Postgraduate Diploma for Teachers (PGDT): Curriculum Framework for Secondary School Teacher Education Program in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Unpublished

Ministry of Education (MOE) (1997). Education Sector Development Programme I (ESDP-I) Program Action Plan. Addis Ababa: Ministry of Education, Education Management Information Systems (EMIS) Department.

Ministry of Education (MOE). (2002).The Education and Training Policy and Its Implementation. Addis Ababa: FDRE Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education (MOE).(2012). Professional Standard for Ethiopian School Teachers: Addis Ababa.

Noel, J. (2000).Notable Selections in Multicultural Education. Retrived November 6, 2004, from http://plsc

Portelli, J. P. (1993). Exposing the hidden curriculum. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 25, 343–358.

Rabah, I. (2012 ). The Influence of Assessment in Constructing a Hidden Curriculum in Higher Education: Can Self and Peer Assessment Bridge the Gap between the Formal and the Hidden Curriculum? International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 11

Razvani, M., & Kianinezhad, R. (2002). Attention to hidden curriculum as an explicit necessity to realize values of religious teachings, Tehran: Tarbiat Modares University Press.

Rennert-Ariev (2008). The Hidden Curriculum of Performance-Based Teacher Education. Teachers College Record Volume 110, Number 1, pp. 105–138

Robati, Tonkaboni & Bagheri (2015) The Experience of Hidden Curriculum on Selecting a Supervisor from the Perspective of students. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 27-42

Rose, D. (2005). Democratizing the classroom: a literacy pedagogy for the new generation. Journal of Education, No.37.

Snyder, B. R. (1971). The hidden curriculum. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE) (1994). Education and Training Policy. Addis Ababa: St.George Press.

Vallance, E. (1980). The hidden curriculum and qualitative inquiry as states of mind. Journal of Education, 162, 138–151.

Wudu, M. (2016). Hidden Curriculum in Ethiopian Higher Education Classrooms: The Case of Jimma University. Dissertation: unpublished.

Yousefzadeh, M. (2014). The Role of Elements Of Hidden Curriculum In Learning Life Skills Among University Students: A Case Study Of The Students At Islamic Azad University Qaemshahr. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. Vol. 4 (S4), Pp. 3403-3409

Yuksel, S. (2006). The Role of Hidden Curricula on the Resistance Behavior of Undergraduate Students in Psychological Counseling and Guidance at a Turkish University. Asia Pacific Education Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, 94-107.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Bahir Dar Journal of Education

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.