Impact of the Invasive Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on Socio-Economic Attributes: A Review

Habtamu Yigermal, Fenta Assefa

Abstract


Water hyacinth is a free-floating, stoloniferous and perennial herb. It is native to South America and profoundly invaded the tropical and subtropical regions. It is recognized as one of the worst weeds due to its rapid proliferation  rate, ecological adaptability and detrimental effects on the environment, human health and economic development. It poses serious socio-economic and environmental problems including the reduction of water quality, hindrance to water transport and recreation, hampering agriculture and  fisheries and affect hydropower and water supply system. In an attempt to control the weed, deferent management strategies such as physical, chemical, biological and integrated methods had been employed  in several countries. As a result, the manual removal method was used in South Africa, Nseleni River; Zimbabwe, Lake Mutirikwi; Ethiopia,Wonji-Shewa Sugar Factory and Lake Tana; and Uganda, Owen fall hydropower in Jinja at Lake Victoria. The chemical control method was practiced  in Zimbabwe of Lake Chivero and in experimental site using 2-4-D , acetic acid and glyphosate; South-west Nigeria of Ere fishing channel and South Africa of  larger dams and river systems by using glyphosate. The biological control was practiced in Zimbabwe of Lake Chivero through a combination of weevil and fungi; and Ethiopia, trying to control the weed using Neochetina bruchi and fungi at Rift Valley, Wonji-Shewa Sugar Factory and  in a greenhouse at experimental level at Bahir Dar University. Integrated management options and awareness creation in all aspects of the weed is recommended to reduce the negative imacts of the weed.

Keywords


Chemical control, invasive aquatic weed, reduction of water quality

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adugnaw, A., Samuael, S., Erehmet, B., Aklilu, A. and Mehari, A.. (2017). Controlling water hyacinth in Lake Tana using biological method at green house and pond level. Eur Exp Biol, 7(5), 30.

Aklilu, A., Samuel, S., Adugnaw, A. and Mehari, A. (2018). Controlling water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms using some selected eco-friendly chemicals. Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development .9 (1) pp.1-3.

Allen, L., Sinclair, T. and Bennett, J. (1997). Evapotranspiration of vegetation of Florida: perpetuated misconceptions versus mechanistic processes. Proceeding of Soils and Crop Science Society of Florida, Florida, 56: 1 – 10.

Ayalew, W., Ali, S., Eyayu, M., Goraw, G. and Muluneh, G. (2012). Preliminary Assessment of Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) in Lake Tana. Paper presented at the Proceedings of National Workshop (Biological Society of Ethiopia), Addis Ababa.

Bartodziej, W. and Weymouth, G. (1995). Waterbird abundance and activity on waterhyacinth and egeria in the St. Marks River, Florida. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 33, 19-22.

Bicudo, D., Fonseca, B., Bini, L., Crossetti, L., Bicudo, C. and Araujo-Jesus, T. (2007). Undesirable side-effects of water hyacinth control in a shallow tropical reservoir. Freshwater Biology, 52, 1120–1133.

Borokoni, T. and Babalola, F. (2012). Management of invasive plant species in Nigeria through economic exploitation: lessons from other countries. Management of Biological Invasions, 3(1), 45-55.

Brehan, M., Martin, d., Leo, N. and Wassie, A. (2011). Lake Tana’s (Ethiopia) endemic Labeobarbus spp. Flock: An uncertain future threatened by exploitation, land use and water resources developments. Paper presented at the Impacts of climate change and population on tropical aquatic resources, proceedings of the Third International Conference of the Ethiopian Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Association (EFASA).

Brendonck, L., Maes, J., Rommens, W., Dekeza, N., Nhiwatiwa, T., Barson, M. and Gratwicke, B. (2003). The impact of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in a eutrophic subtropical impoundment (Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe). II. Species diversity. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 158(3), 389-405.

Center, T., Steward, K. and Bruner, M. (1982). Control of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) with Neochetina eichhorniae (Caleoptera: Curculionidae) and a growth retardant. Weed Science Journal, 30, 453-457.

Chikwenhere, G. (2001). Current strategies for the management of water hyacinth on the Manyame River system in Zimbabwe. In: Biological and integrated control of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. Proceedings of the Second Global Working Group Meeting for the Biological and Integrated Control of Water Hyacinth (pp. 105-108).

Cho, M., and Tifuh, J. (2012). Quantification of the impacts of water hyacinth on riparian communities in Cameroon and assessment of an appropriate method of control: the case of the Wouri River Basin.

Cilliers, C. (1991). Biological control of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae), in South Africa. Agric., Ecosys. and Environ. 37: 207-217.

DeLoach , C. and Cordo, H. (1976). Ecological studies of Neochetina bruchi and Neochetina eichhorniae on water hyacinth in Argentina. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 14, 53 – 59.

Dereje, T., Erkie, A., Wondie, Z. and Brehan, M. (2017). Identification of impacts, some biology of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and its management options in Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Neth. J. Agric. Sci., 5(1), 8-15.

Ding, J., Wang, R., Fu, W. and Zhang, G. (2001). Water Hyacinth in China: Its Distribution, Problems and Control Status. In: Julien, M.H., Hill, M.P., Center, T.D., Ding, J.Q. (Eds.), Biological and Integrated Control of Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes. ACIAR Proceedings 102. Canberra, Australian, p.29-32.

Edward, R. (2013). Lake Tana water hyacinth management strategy.

Endeshaw, G. (2018). College Of Agriculture And Rural Transformation Department Of Agricultural Economics Senior Seminar On The Socio Economic Impacts Of Water Hyacinth Invasion In Ethiopia.

Erkie, A. (2017). Current trend of water hyacinth expansion and its consequence on the fisheries around north eastern part of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species, 5, 189.

European Environment Agency (EEA). (2012). The impacts of invasive alien species in Europe. EEA Technical report No 16/2012, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Feikin, D., Tabu, C. and Gichuki, J. (2010). Does water hyacinth on East African lakes promote cholera outbreaks? American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83: 370–373. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0645.

Gichuki, J., Omondi, R., Boera, P., Okorut, T., Matano, A., Jembe, T. and Ofulla, A. (2012). Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation. The Scientific World Journal, 2012.

Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). (2006). Eichhorrnia crassipes (aquatic plant). International Union for Conservation of Nature/ Invasive Species Specialist Group.

Gopal, B. (1987). Aquatic plant studies 1. Water hyacinth. City, Netherlands: Elsevier Science.

Gopal, B. (1987). Water Hyacinth Elsevier. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 471.

Gutiérrez, E., Ruiz, E., Uribe, E. and Martínez, J. (2000). Biomass and productivity of water hyacinth and their application in control programs. Paper presented at the ACIAR PROCEEDINGS.

Haider, S. (1989). Recent work in Bangladesh on the utilization of water hyacinth. Commonwealth Science Council, Dhaka University, Dhaka, pp: 32.

Harley, K.., Julien, M. and Wright, A. (1996). Water hyacinth: A tropical world wide problem and methods for its control.

Hill, M. and Coetzee, J. (2017). The biological control of aquatic weeds in South Africa: Current status and future challenges. Bothalia-African Biodiversity & Conservation, 47(2), 1-12.

Hill, M. and Coetzee, J. (2008). Integrated control of water hyacinth in Africa 1. EPPO bulletin, 38(3), 452-457.

Hill, M., Coetzee, J., Julien, M. and Center, T. (2011). Encyclopedia of biological invasions. In: Water Hyacinth, Simberlof D. and Rejmanek M. (Eds.). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA., pp: 689-692.

Howard, G. and Matindi, S. (2003). Alien invasive species in Africa’s Wetlands. Some threats and solutions. IUCN Eastern African Regional Program, Nairobi, Kenya. International Development Research Centre (n.d.). People, Land and Water. Retrieved June 19th, 2012.

Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG). (1997). Water hyacinth control and possible uses. knowledge and information service, the Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development, Bourton Hall, UK. ISSN 1857- 7431.

Jimenez, M. and Balandra, M. (2007). Integrated control of Eichhornia crassipes by using insects and plant pathogens in Mexico. Crop Protection, 26(8), 1234-1238.

Jiménez, M. and Charudattan, R. (1998). Survey and evaluation of Mexican native fungi for potential biocontrol of water hyacinth. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 36, 145-148.

Jones, R. (2009). The impact on biodiversity, and integrated control, of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) on the Lake Nsezi –Nseleni River System. MSc Thesis. Department of Zoology and Entomology-Rhodes University. South Africa. 115p.

Julien, M. (2000). Biological control of water hyacinth with arthropods: a review to 2000. In: Aciar Proceedings (pp. 8-20). ACIAR; 1998.

Julien, M., Griffiths, M. and Stanley, J. (2001). Biological control of water hyacinth 2. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

Kateregga, E. and Sterner, T. (2009). Lake Victoria fish stocks and the effects of water hyacinth. The Journal of Environment and Development, 18, 62–78.

Labradar, R. (1995). Status of water hyacinth in developing countries: In: R. Charudattan, R. Labrada, T.D. Center, Christine Kelly-Begazo. Strategies for Water Hyacinth Control.Report of a Panel of Experts Meeting, Fort Lauderdale, Florida USA. Pp 3-11.

Lindsey, K. and Hirt, H. (1999). Use water hyacinth!: A practical handbook of uses for the water hyacinth from across the world.

Lu, J., Wu, J., Fu, Z. and Zhu, L. (2007). Water hyacinth in China: a sustainability science-based management framework. Environmental management, 40(6), 823.

Mailu, A. (2001). Preliminary assessment of the social, economic and environmental impacts of water hyacinth in the Lake Victoria basin and the status of control. In: Biological and Integrated control of water hyacinth, Erchhornia crassipes. Julien, M. H., M. P. Hill, T. D. Centre and D. Jianqung (Eds)., ACIAR proceedings 102, 130–139.

Mallya, G., Mjema, P. and Ndunguru, J. (2001). Water hyacinth control through integrated weed management strategies in Tanzania. Proc. ACIAR. Biological and Integrated Control of Water hyacinth, 102, 120-122.

Mara, M. (1976). Estimated costs of mechanical control of water hyacinths. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 2(4), 273-294.

Martinez, J. and Charudattan, R. (1998). Survey and evaluation of Mexican native fungi for Biocontrol of water hyacinth. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 36, 145-148.

Martínez, M. (2003). Progress on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) management. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper (FAO).

Masifwa, W., Twongo, T. and Denny, P. (2001). The impact of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms on the abundance and diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates along the shores of northern Lake Victoria, Uganda. Hydrobiologia, 452(1-3), 79-88.

May, M., Grosso, C. and Collins, J. (2003). Practical guide book to the control of Invasive Aquatic and Wetland plants of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Region. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, California.

McVea, C. and Boyd, C. (1975). Effects of Waterhyacinth Cover on Water Chemistry, Phytoplankton, and Fish in Ponds 1. Journal of Environmental Quality, 4(3), 375-378.

Minakawa, N., Sonye, G., Dida, G., Futami, K. and Kaneko, S. (2008). Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus. Malaria J 7:119.

Mironga, J., Mathooko, J. and Onywere, S. (2011). The effect of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) infestation on phytoplankton productivity in Lake Naivasha and the status of control. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 5(10).

Mironga, J., Mathooko, J., and Onywere, S. (2012). The effect of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) infestation on phytoplankton productivity in Lake Naivasha and the status of control. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 5(10).

Mujere, N. (2016). Water hyacinth: characteristics, problems, control options, and beneficial uses impact of water pollution on human health and environmental sustainability (pp. 343-361): IGI Global.

Mujingni, C. (2012). Quantification of the impacts of water hyacinth on riparian communities in Cameroon and assessment of an appropriate method of control: The case of the River Wouri Basin: The Case of the Wouri River Basin. MSc disseratation. World Maritime University, Malmö, Sweden.

Navarro, L. and Phiri, G. (2000). Water hyacinth in Africa and the Middle East: A survey of problems and solutions. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada. 140p.

Ndimele, P., Kumolo-Johnson, C. and Anetekhai, M. (2011). The invasive aquatic macrophyte, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solm-Laubach: Pontederiacea): Problems and Prospects. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences 5, 6: 509–520. (doi: 10.3423/rjes 2011.509.502).

Patel, S. (2012). Threats, management and envisaged utilizations of aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes: an overview. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 11(3), 249-259.

Rakotoarisoa, T. (2017). Use of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) in Poor and Remote Regions: A Case Study from Lake Alaotra, Madagascar (Doctoral dissertation, Universität Hildesheim).

Rezania, S., Ponraj, M., Din, M., Songip, A., Sairan, F. and Chelliapan, S. (2015). The diverse applications of water hyacinth with main focus on sustainable energy and production for new era: an overview. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 41, 943-954.

Rezene, F. (2005). Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): A review of its weed status in Ethiopia. Arem (Ethiopia).

Samuel,T. and Nestanet, A. (2014). Prevalence and intensity of water hyacinth infestation in the water bodies of Rift Valley, Ethiopia.

Senayit, R., Agajie, T., Taye, T., Adefires, W. and Getu, E. (2004). Invasive alien plant control and prevention in Ethiopia. Pilot Surveys and Control Baseline Conditions. Report submitted to EARO, Ethiopia and CABI under the PDF B phase of the UNEP GEF Project-Removing Barriers to Invasive Plant Management in Africa. EARO, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Shanab, S., Shalaby, E., Lightfoot, D. and El-Shemy, H. (2010). Allelopathic effects of water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes]. PloS one, 5(10), e13200.

Taye, T., Rezene, F., Yirefu, F. and Dereje, T. (2009). Review invasive weed research in Ethiopia. In: Abraham, T. (Ed.), Increasing crop production through improved plant protection: Vol. 2. Plant Protection Society of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 381-407.

Téllez, T., López, E., Granado, G., Pérez, E., López, R. and Guzmán, J. (2008). The water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes: an invasive plant in the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Aquatic Invasions, 3(1), 42-53.

Uka, U., Chukwuka, K.. and Daddy, F. (2007). Water hyacinth infestation and management in Nigeria inland waters: a review. Plant Sci, 2, 480-488.

Van, T. (1988). Integrated control of water hyacinth with Neochetina and paclobutrazol. J. Aquat. Plant Mange. 26: 59-61.

Van Wyk, E. and van Wilgen, B. (2002). The cost of water hyacinth control in South Africa: A Case study of three options. African Journal of Aquatic Science, 27(2), 141-149.

Varshney, J., kumar, S. and Mishra, J. (2008). Current status of aquatic weeds and their management in India. In: Proceedings of Taal 2007: the 12th world lake conference, pp 1039–1045.

Villamagna, A. and Murphy, B. (2010). Ecological and socioeconomic impacts of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): a review. Freshwater biology, 55(2), 282-298.

Waithaka, E. (2013). Impacts of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on the fishing communities of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Journal of Biodiversity Endanger Species, 1:108.

Wassie, A., Minwuyelet, M., Ayalew, W., Dereje, T., Woldegebrael, W., Addisalem, A. and Wondie, E. (2014). Water hyacinth coverage survey report on Lake Tana. Technical Report Series 1.

Wise, R., van-Wilgen, B., Hill, M., Schulthess, F., Tweddle, D., Chabi-Olay, A. and Zimmermann, H. (2007). The economic impact and appropriate management of selected invasive alien species on the African continent. Global Invasive species Programme. CSIR Report No. CSIR/NRE/RBSD/ER/2007/0044/C.

Wittenberg, R. and Cock, M. (2001). Invasive alien species: a toolkit of best prevention and management practices. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International.

Yirefu, F. (2017). Management of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) using bioagents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. PhD dissertation, Wageningen University.

Yirefu, F., Abera, T., Tariku, G. and Taye, T. (2007). Distribution, impact and management of water hyacinth at Wonji-Shoa sugar factory. Ethiopian Journal of Weed Management, 1:41-52.

Yirefu, F., Struik, P., Lantinga, E. and Taye, T. (2014). Water hyacinth in the Rift Valley water bodies of Ethiopia: Its distribution, socio-economic importance and management. Management of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) using bioagents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia, International Journal of Current Agriculture Research, 3:67-75.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.