Re-examining the Validity of the Full-Range Leadership Models

Goitom Woldelibanos Gebremariam, Yalew Endawoke Mulu

Abstract


Ethiopia converges with other cultural groups on certain values and diverges on some others (Hofstede, 2001). As a result of the cultural divergence, it was hypothesized that the psychometric properties of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and the leadership models are likely to vary in the Ethiopian context. For that purpose, six hundred twenty seven academic staff from three public universities located in the National Regional State of Tigray were selected using stratified sampling. The participants rated their immediate leader’s leadership practices using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire trimmed by Avolio, Bass, and Jung (1999). The participants also rated their own organizational commitment using the Meyer, Allen, and Smith (1993) revised Organizational Commitment Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis of the eight competing models showed that the data fit best to a nine-factor model. Correlational analysis indicated that the five components of transformational leadership, contingent reward, and management-by-exception active had strong relationships (r > .7) with each other, which indicates the existence of higherorder factors. The search for higher-order factors again produced a two-factor leadership model (active and passive) with a good fit. The criterion validity of the nine factors were also tested. Correlational analysis showed that with the exception of active management-by-exception, the other factors showed functional universality as proposed by Bass (1997). Conclusions, implications, limitations, and future research directions were discussed

Keywords


Leadership; leadership model; Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire; and Criterion validity

Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


AL-Hussami, M. (2008). A study of nurses' job satisfaction: The relationship to organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, transactional leadership, transformational leadership, and level of education. European Journal of Scientific Research, 22(2), 286-295.

Antonakis J., Avolio, B. J., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (2003). Context and leadership: an examination of the nine-factor full-range leadership theory using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 261–295.

Antonakis, J. (2001). The validity of the transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership model as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 5X).Walden University: Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company.

Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (1995). MLQ Multifactor leadership questionnaire: Technical Report. Redwood City, CA: Mindgarden

Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M.,&. Jung, D. I. (1999). Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 441– 462.

Avolio, J. B., Howell, J.M., Sosik, J.J. (1999). A funny thing happened on the way to the bottom line: Humor as a moderator of leadership style effects. Academy of Management Journal,42(2), 219-227.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press.

Bass, B. M. (1997). Does the transactional-transformational paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? American Psychologist, 22, 130–142.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1989). Potential biases in leadership measures: How prototypes, leniency, and general satisfaction relate to ratings and rankings of transformational and transactional leadership constructs. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 49, 509-527.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1990). Manual for the multifactor leadership questionnaire. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1997). Full range leadership development: manual for the Multifactor LeadershipQuestionnaire. Palo Alto, CA: Mindgarden.

Bass, B.M. (1996). A new paradigm of leadership: An inquiry into transformational leadership. Alexandria: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

Bloom, B., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwhol, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. New York: Longmans.

Bochner, S., & Hesketh, B. (1994). Power distance, individualism/collectivism, and job related attitudes in a culturally diverse work group.Journal of Cross-Cultural Perspectives, 25, 233–257.

Bycio, P., Hackett, R. D., & Allen, J. S. (1995). Further assessments of Bass's (1985) conceptualization of transactional and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(4), 468-478

Chen, X., & Farh, J. (1999). The effectiveness of transformational leader behaviors in Chinese organizations: Evidence from Taiwan. Presentation at the National Meetings of the Academy of Management, Chicago, IL.

Den Hartog, D., Van Muijen, J., & Koopman, P. (1997). Transactional versus transformational leadership: An analysis of the MLQ. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 19- 34.

Dorfman, P. W., Howell, J. P., Hibino, S., Lee, J. K., Tate, U., & Bautista, A. (1997). Leadership in western and Asian countries: Commonalities and differences in effective leadership processes across cultures. Leadership Quarterly, 8(3), 233-274.

Farh, J. L., & Cheng, B. S. (1999). A cultural analysis of paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations. In Li, Tsui, & Weldon (Eds.), Management and organizations in China: Current issues and future research directions. London: MacMillan.

Gemechis, F. & Ayalew, S. (2012). Department heads’ self-perception of their leadership styles at Jimma University. Ethiopian Journal of Science, 7(2), 97-114.

George, J. M., & Jones, G. R. (1997). Organizational spontaneity in context. Human Performance, 10(2), 153-170.

Goitom, W. (in progress). The effects of leaders’ emotional intelligence, leadership styles and instructors’ organizational commitment on the instructors’ organizational citizenship behavior. Dissertation, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

Gutterman, A. S. (2010). Organizational management and administration: A guide for managers and professionals. Thomson Reuters /West.

Hammer, M. (1996). Beyond reengineering: How the process-centered organization is changing our work and our lives. USA: Harper Business.

Hater, J. J., & Bass, B. M (1988). Superiors' Evaluations and Subordinates' Perceptions of Transformational and Transactional Leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(4), 695-702.

Ho, R. (2006). Handbook of univariate and multivariate data analysis and interpretation with SPSS. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC: United States of America.

Hofstede, G. (2001).Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions,and organizations across nations (2 nd ed.). California: Sage Publications.

Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the mind-Intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival. New York: McGraw-Hill

House, R. J., & Aditya, R. N. (1997). The social scientific study of leadership: Quo Vadis? Journal of Management, 23, 409–473.

Howell, J. M., &Avolio, B. J. (1993).Transformational Leadership, transactional leadership, locus of control, and support for innovation: Key predictors of consolidated-businessunit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(6), 891-902.

Humphreys, J. H. (2001).Transformational and transactional leader behavior: The relationship with support for e-commerce and emerging technology. Journal of Management Research, 1(3), 149-159.

Ivancevich, J. M., & Matteson, M. T. (2002). Organizational behavior and management (6 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Javaid, M. F., & Mirza, M. U. (2013). Leadership style enhances the employee organizational commitment: A case study of educational institutions in Lahore. International Journals and Conference of management, statistics,and social sciences.

Jogulu, U. D. (2010). Culturally-linked leadership styles. Leadership and Organization. Development Journal, 31 (8), 705-719.

Khan, N. R., Ghouri, A. M., & Awang, M. (2013). Leadership styles and organizational citizenship behavior in small and medium scale firms.Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce, 4(2), 144-154.

LePine J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behavior: A critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 52–65.

Lo, M.C., Ramayah, T., & Min, H. W. (2009). Leadership styles and organizational commitment: A test on Malaysia manufacturing industry. African Journal of Marketing Management, 1(6), 133-139.

Marsh, H. W., & Hocevar, D. (1985). Application of confirmatory factor analysis to the study of self-concept: First and higher-order factor models and their invariance across groups. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 562–582.

Mester, C., Visser, D., Roodt, G., & Kellerman, R. (2003). Leadership style and its relation to employee attitudes and behavior. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 29 (2), 72-82.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application.

Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J., & Smith, C. A. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 538–551.

Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. C., &Guarino, A. J. (2005). Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. London, SAGE Publications.

Nazir, S., Shafi, A., Qun, W., Nazir,N., & Tran,Q. D. (2016). Influence of organizational rewards on organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Employee Relations, 38(4), 596-619.

Nunnaly, J. O. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw Hill.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26(3), 513-563.

Rao, G. S., & Girma, T. G. (2017). The effect of leadership styles on organizational commitment: A study of Ethiopian public universities. Zenith International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 7 (1), 98-116.

Saqer, H. O. (2009). The effects of perceived leadership style on organizational commitment: An empirical study on UNRWA staff. Unpublished MA Thesis, Gaza Islamic University, Palestine.

Scott, D. (2007). Resolving the quantitative–qualitative dilemma: a critical realist approach. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 30(1), 3–17

Somech, A., & Oplatka, I. (2015). Organizational citizenship behavior in schools: Examining the impact and opportunities within educational systems. Pretoria Open Collection

Spreitzer G. M., Perttula K. H., & Xin K. R. (2005). Traditionality matters: An examination of the effectiveness of transformational leadership in the United States and Taiwan. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 205–227.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics (6 th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

United Nations (2017). The least developed countries report (LDC): Transformational energy access. New York and Geneva: United Nations.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Bahir Dar Journal of Education

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.